advertisement

Sequential Logic Combinational logic: Compute a function all at one time Fast/expensive e.g. combinational multiplier Sequential logic: Compute a function in a series of steps Slower/more efficient e.g. shift/add multiplier Key to sequential logic: circuit has feedback Use the result of one step as an input to the next Sequential Logic 1 Circuits with feedback How to control feedback? what stops values from cycling around endlessly? this is an asynchronous sequential circuit X1 X2 • • • Xn Combinational circuit Sequential Logic Z1 Z2 • • • Zn 2 Simplest circuits with feedback: latch Two inverters form a static memory cell will hold value as long as it has power applied "1" "stored value" "0" How to get a new value into the memory cell? selectively break feedback path load new value into cell "remember" "data" "load" "stored value" Sequential Logic 3 Let’s Use This Latch What happens? X1 X2 • • • Xn Combinational circuit Sequential Logic Z1 Z2 • • • 4 What We Need: When inputs change... Wait until combinational logic has finished and result it stable... Then sample the output value and save... Feed the saved output back to the input of the combinational logic Make sure the saved output can’t change Key idea: we sample the result at the right time, i.e. when it is ready Only then do we update the stored value How do we know when to sample? How do we know when the inputs changed? How do we know how long to wait? Sequential Logic 5 What We Need: A circuit that can sample a value A signal that says when to sample Edge-triggered D flip-flop (register) Samples on positive edge of clock Holds value until next positive edge Most common storage element D Q Clock Periodic signal, each rising edge signals D flip-flops to sample All registers sample at the same time Sequential Logic 6 Let’s Use This D flip-flop Does this work? What do we need to say about the inputs X1, X2, ...? This is a synchronous sequential circuit X1 X2 • • • Xn Combinational circuit Z1 Z2 • • • D Q Sequential Logic 7 Registers Sample data using clock Hold data between clock cycles Computation (and delay) occurs between registers data in D Q D Q data out clock stable may change data in clock data out (Q) stable stable Sequential Logic stable 8 Example - Circuit with Feedback Output is a function of arbitrarily many past inputs Sequential Logic 9 Examples (cont’d) Output is a function of inputs and the previous state of the circuit Sequential Logic B – – 0 A 0 0 1 outt 0 1 – outt+1 0 1 0 1 1 – 1 10 Example - Circuit without Feedback Output is a function of the input sampled at three different points in time Sequential Logic 11 Timing Methodologies (cont’d) Definition of terms setup time: minimum time before the clocking event by which the input must be stable (Tsu) hold time: minimum time after the clocking event until which the input must remain stable (Th) Tsu Th data D Q D Q input clock there is a timing "window" around the clocking event during which the input must remain stable and unchanged in order to be recognized clock stable changing data clock Sequential Logic 12 Typical timing specifications Positive edge-triggered D flip-flop setup and hold times minimum clock width propagation delays (low to high, high to low, max and typical) D CLK Q Tsu 5ns Tsu 5ns Th 2ns Th 2ns Tw 7ns Tplh 5ns 3ns Tphl 7ns 5ns all measurements are made from the clocking event that is, the rising edge of the clock Sequential Logic 13 Cascaded Flip-Flops Shift register: new value to first stage while second state obtains current value of first stage Outputs change only on clock tick Q0 IN D Q Q1 D Q OUT CLK Sequential Logic 14 Cascaded Flip-Flops (cont’d) Contamination delay > hold time next stage latches current value before it is replaced by new value Clock period > propagation delays + setup time new value must arrive early enough to be seen at next clock event Timing constraints guarantee proper operation of cascaded components Assumes infinitely fast distribution of clock signal In Q0 Tsu 5ns Tsu 5ns Tcd 3ns Q1 CLK Th 2ns Sequential Logic Tcd 3ns Th 2ns 15 Effect of Clock Skew Q0 IN CLK0 Q1 D Q D Q OUT CLK1 delay IN Q0 Q1 CLK0 CLK1 IN Q0 Q1 CLK0 CLK1 Sequential Logic 16 Clock Skew Correct behavior assumes that all storage elements sample at exactly the same time Not possible in real systems: clock driven from some central location different wire delay to different points in the circuit Problems arise if skew is of the same order as FF contamination delay Gets worse as systems get faster (wires don't improve as fast) 1) distribute clock signals in general direction of data flow 2) wire carrying the clock between two communicating components should be as short as possible 3) try to make all wires from the clock generator be the same length – clock tree Sequential Logic 17 Other Types of Latches and Flip-Flops Best choice is D-FF simplest design technique, minimizes number of wires preferred in PLDs and FPGAs good choice for data storage register edge-triggered has most straightforward timing constraints Historically J-K FF was popular versatile building block, usually requires least amount of logic to implement function two inputs require more wiring and logic (e.g., two two-level logic blocks in PLDs) good in days of TTL/SSI, not a good choice for PLDs and FPGAs can always be implemented using D-FF Level-sensitive latches in special circumstances popular in VLSI because they can be made very small (4 transistors) fundamental building block of all other flip-flop types two latches make a D-FF Preset and clear inputs are highly desirable Sequential Logic 18 Comparison of latches and flip-flops D Q CLK positive edge-triggered flip-flop D CLK Qedge D Q Qlatch CLK transparent, flow-through (level-sensitive) latch behavior is the same unless input changes while the clock is high Sequential Logic 19 What About External Inputs? Internal signals are OK Can only change when clock changes External signals can change at any time Asynchronous inputs Truly asynchronous Produced by a different clock This means register may sample a signal that is changing Violates setup/hold time What happens? Sequential Logic 20 Synchronization failure Occurs when FF input changes close to clock edge the FF may enter a metastable state – neither a logic 0 nor 1 – it may stay in this state an indefinite amount of time this is not likely in practice but has some probability logic 1 logic 0 logic 1 small, but non-zero probability that the FF output will get stuck in an in-between state logic 0 Sequential Logic oscilloscope traces demonstrating synchronizer failure and eventual decay to steady state 21 Calculating probability of failure For a single synchronizer Mean-Time Between Failure (MTBF) = exp ( tr / ) / ( T0 f a ) where a failure occurs if metastability persists beyond time tr after a clock edge tr is the resolution time - extra time in clock period for settling Tclk - (tpd + TCL + tsetup) f is the frequency of the FF clock a is the number of asynchronous input changes per second applied to the FF T0 and are constaints that depend on the FF's electrical characteristics (e.g., gain or steepness of curve) typical values are T0 = .4s and = 1.5ns (sensitive to temperature, these are just voltage, cosmic rays, etc.). Must add probabilities from all synchronizers in system 1/MTBFsystem = 1/MTBFsynch Sequential Logic averages 22 Metastability Example input changes at 1 MHz system clock of 10MHz, flipflop (tpd + tsetup) = 5ns MTBF = exp( 95ns / 1.5ns ) / ( .4s 107 106 ) = 25 million years if we go to 20MHz then: MTBF = exp( 45ns / 1.5ns ) / ( .4s 2107 106 ) = 1.33 seconds! Must do the calculations and allow enough time for synchronization Sequential Logic 23 Guarding against synchronization failure Give the register time to decide Probability of failure cannot be reduced to 0, but it can be reduced Slow down the system clock? Use very fast technology for synchronizer -> quicker decision? Cascade two synchronizers? asynchronous input D Q D synchronized input Q Clk Sequential Logic 24 Another Problem with Asynchronous inputs What goes wrong here? (Hint: it’s not a metastability thing) What is the fix? Async Input D Q Q0 Clock D Q Q1 Clock Sequential Logic 25 Flip-flop Extras Reset (set state to 0) – R synchronous: Dnew = R' • Dold (when next clock edge arrives) asynchronous: doesn't wait for clock, quick but dangerous Preset or set (set state to 1) – S (or sometimes P) synchronous: Dnew = Dold + S (when next clock edge arrives) asynchronous: doesn't wait for clock, quick but dangerous Both reset and preset Dnew = R' • Dold + S Dnew = R' • Dold + R'S (set-dominant) (reset-dominant) Selective input capability (input enable or load) – LD or EN multiplexor at input: Dnew = LD' • Q + LD • Dold load may or may not override reset/set Complementary outputs – Q and Q’ Output enable - tristate output Sequential Logic 26 Registers Collection of flip-flops with same control stored values somehow related (for example, form binary value) Examples shift registers counters OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4 Reset R S R S R S R S D Q D Q D Q D Q CLK IN1 IN2 Sequential Logic IN3 IN4 27 Shift register Holds samples of input store last 4 input values in sequence 4-bit shift register: OUT1 IN D Q OUT2 D Q D Q OUT3 OUT4 D Q CLK Sequential Logic 28 4-bit Universal shift register Holds 4 values serial or parallel inputs serial or parallel outputs permits shift left or right shift in new values from left or right output left_in left_out clear s0 s1 right_out right_in clock input Sequential Logic clear sets the register contents and output to 0 s1 and s0 determine the shift function s0 0 0 1 1 s1 0 1 0 1 function hold state shift right shift left load new input 29 Design of Universal Shift Register Consider one of the four flip-flops new value at next clock cycle: clear 1 0 0 0 0 s0 – 0 0 1 1 s1 – 0 1 0 1 new value 0 output output value of FF to left (shift right) output value of FF to right (shift left) input Nth cell to N-1th cell to N+1th cell Q D CLK CLEAR s0 and s1 0 1 2 3 control mux Q[N-1] (left) Sequential Logic Input[N] Q[N+1] (right) 30 Binary counter Next state function for bit i XOR acts like a “programmable” inverter if bits 0:i-1 are 1, then toggle bit i requires an i-input AND for bit i Synchronous: outputs all change when clock ticks OUT0 D Q OUT1 D Q OUT2 D Q OUT3 D Q CLK "1" Sequential Logic 31 Example: 4-bit binary synchronous counter Typical library component positive edge-triggered FFs w/ synchronous load and clear inputs parallel load data from D, C, B, A enable input: assert to enable counting EN RCO: “ripple-carry out” used for cascading counters high when counter is in its highest state 1111 D C RCO implemented using an AND gate B (2) RCO goes high CLK A LOAD CLK CLR QD QC QB QA (1) Low order 4-bits = 1111 Sequential Logic 32 Other Counters: cheaper/faster Sequences through a fixed set of patterns in this case, 1000, 0100, 0010, 0001 if one of the patterns is its initial state (by loading or set/reset) OUT1 IN D Q OUT2 D Q D Q OUT3 OUT4 D Q CLK Mobius (or Johnson) counter in this case, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111, 0111, 0011, 0001, 0000 OUT1 IN D Q OUT2 D Q D Q OUT3 OUT4 D Q CLK Sequential Logic 33