A power station has 4 consumers with their maximum demand as 40 MW, 20 MW, 30 MW and 50 MW. The maximum demand of the station is 100 MW. The diversity factor of the plant is ______.

Option 3 : 1.4

Diversity factor:

The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

**\(Diversity\;factor = \frac{{Sum\;of\;individual\;maximum\;demands}}{{Maximum\;demand\;on\;power\;station}}\)**

A power station supplies load to various types of consumers whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the same time. Therefore, the maximum demand for the power station is always less than the sum of the individual maximum demands of the consumer. Hence** diversity factor is always greater than 1.**

The knowledge of the diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

The **greater the diversity factor**, the **lesser is the cost of generation of power.** Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

__Calculation:__

Sum of maximum individual demand = 40 + 20 + 30 + 50 = 140 MW

Maximum demand of the station = 100 MW

**Diversity factor** \( = \frac{{140}}{{100}} = 1.4\)

The peak load on a 50 MW power station is 39 MW. It supplies power through four transformers having maximum demands as 15, 10, 8 and 9 MW, respectively. Find the diversity factor.

Option 4 : 1.077

Diversity factor: The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

\(Diversity\;factor = \frac{{Sum\;of\;individual\;maximum\;demands}}{{Maximum\;demand\;on\;power\;station}}\)

A power station supplies load to various types of consumers whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the same time. Therefore, maximum demand on the power station is always less than the sum of individual maximum demands of the consumer. Hence diversity factor is always greater than 1.

The knowledge of diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

The greater the diversity factor, the lesser is the cost of generation of power. Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

__Calculation:__

Sum of maximum individual demand = 15 + 10 + 8 + 9 = 42 MW

Maximum demand of the station = 39 MW

Diversity factor \( = \frac{{42}}{{39}} = 1.0769\)

Option 3 : diversity factor

__Diversity factor:__

The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

\(Diversity\;factor = \frac{{Sum\;of\;individual\;maximum\;demands}}{{Maximum\;demand\;on\;power\;station}}\)

A power station supplies load to various types of consumers whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the same time. Therefore, maximum demand on the power station is always less than the sum of individual maximum demands of the consumer. Hence diversity factor is always greater than 1.

The knowledge of diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

The greater the diversity factor, the lesser is the cost of generation of power. Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

__Note:__

__Demand factor:__

- It is defined as the ratio of maximum demand on the power station to its connected load.
- Demand factor = Maximum demand / Total connected load

__Load factor:__

- The ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a given period is known as the load factor.
**Load factor = average load / maximum demand**

A power plant with 80 MW capacity has a peak load of 60 MW. Loads with maximum demands of 30 MW, 20 MW, 10 MW and 15 MW are connected to the plant. Find the diversity factor.

Option 3 : 1.25

Diversity factor: The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

A power station supplies load to various types of consumers whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the same time. Therefore, maximum demand on the power station is always less than the sum of individual maximum demands of the consumer. Hence** diversity factor is always greater than 1.**

The knowledge of diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

The greater the diversity factor, the lesser is the cost of generation of power. Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

__Calculation:__

Sum of maximum individual demand = 30 + 20 + 10 + 15 = 75 MW

Maximum demand of the station = 60 MW

Diversity factor \( = \frac{{75}}{{60}} = 1.25\)

Option 2 : The load factor and diversity factor should be high

**Load factor (L _{f}):**

The load factor is the ratio of the average load power to the maximum demand in a specific period of time.

\(L_f = \frac {P_{avg}}{P_{max}}\)

It can also be defined as the ratio of the total energy used over a specific period of time (KWh) to the total possible energy available within that period (i.e., Maximum demand over that period)

Load factor value **is between 0 and 1.**

The high value of the load factor means the load is using electrical energy more efficiently.

Hence, **the high load factor gives more savings of electrical energy, which means the cost of power generation will be lower**.

**Diversity factor (Div _{f}):**

It is defined as the ratio of the sum of the maximum demand of individual loads of the system to the maximum demand of the system itself.

The diversity factor **is always greater than 1.**

By increasing the individual peak loads, the diversity factor will be increased.

The load is using electrical energy more efficiently and the system efficiency also increases.

So, the cost of power generation also decreased because of increasing power generation.

**Hence, the Load factor and the Diversity factor values should be high to lower the cost of power generation.**

A power station has 4 consumers with their maximum demand as 40 MW, 20 MW, 30 MW and 50 MW. The maximum demand of the station is 100 MW. The diversity factor of the plant is ______.

Option 3 : 1.4

Diversity factor:

The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

A power station supplies load to various types of consumers whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the same time. Therefore, the maximum demand for the power station is always less than the sum of the individual maximum demands of the consumer. Hence** diversity factor is always greater than 1.**

The knowledge of the diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

The **greater the diversity factor**, the **lesser is the cost of generation of power.** Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

__Calculation:__

Sum of maximum individual demand = 40 + 20 + 30 + 50 = 140 MW

Maximum demand of the station = 100 MW

**Diversity factor** \( = \frac{{140}}{{100}} = 1.4\)

At the receiving end of the distribution system, a feeder supplied energy to the different loads. Each one supplying a group of customers whose connected loads are as under:

Load |
Connected load |
Demand factor |
Diversity of group |

Load 1 |
10 kW |
0.65 |
1.3 |

Load 2 |
12 kW |
0.6 |
1.2 |

Load 3 |
15 kW |
0.7 |
1.5 |

If the overall diversity factor is 1·8, find the maximum load on the feeder.

Option 2 : 10 kW

__Concept:__

**Demand factor (D _{f}): **It is defined as the ratio of maximum demand on the system to its connected load.

\(D_f = \frac{{MD}}{{CL}}\)

Where,

MD is the maximum demand

CL is connected load

The value of the demand factor is usually less than 1. It is because maximum demand is always less than the connected load.

**Diversity factor (D _{vf}):** The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

\(D_{vf} = \frac{{∑ MD}}{{MD}}\)

Where ∑MD is the sum of individual maximum demand.

__Calculation:__

**For load 1:**

CL = 10 kW

D_{f} = 0.65

D_{vf} = 1.5

∑MD = CL × Df = 10 × 0.65 = 6.5 kW

And, MD = 6.5 / 1.3 = 5 kW

**For load 2:**

CL = 12 kW

D_{f} = 0.6

D_{vf} = 3.5

∑MD = CL × Df = 12 × 0.6 = 7.2 kW

And, MD = 7.2 / 1.2 = 6 kW

**For load 3:**

CL = 15 kW

D_{f} = 0.7

D_{vf} = 1.5

∑MD = CL × Df = 15 × 0.7 = 10.5 kW

And, MD = 10.5 / 1.5 = 7 kW

Hence, new sum of maximum demand is given as,

∑MD = 5 + 6 + 7 = 18 kW

Given overall diversity factor (D_{vf}) = 1.8

The peak load on a 50 MW power station is 39 MW. It supplies power through four transformers having maximum demands as 15, 10, 8 and 9 MW, respectively. Find the diversity factor.

Option 4 : 1.077

Diversity factor: The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the maximum demand on the power station is known as a diversity factor.

The knowledge of diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

__Calculation:__

Sum of maximum individual demand = 15 + 10 + 8 + 9 = 42 MW

Maximum demand of the station = 39 MW

Diversity factor \( = \frac{{42}}{{39}} = 1.0769\)

Option 3 : diversity factor

__Diversity factor:__

The knowledge of diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

__Note:__

__Demand factor:__

- It is defined as the ratio of maximum demand on the power station to its connected load.
- Demand factor = Maximum demand / Total connected load

__Load factor:__

- The ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a given period is known as the load factor.
**Load factor = average load / maximum demand**

Option 3 : 1.4

Diversity factor:

A power station supplies load to various types of consumers whose maximum demands generally do not occur at the same time. Therefore, the maximum demand for the power station is always less than the sum of the individual maximum demands of the consumer. Hence** diversity factor is always greater than 1.**

The knowledge of the diversity factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.

The **greater the diversity factor**, the **lesser is the cost of generation of power.** Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

__Calculation:__

Sum of maximum individual demand = 40 + 20 + 30 + 50 = 140 MW

Maximum demand of the station = 100 MW

**Diversity factor** \( = \frac{{140}}{{100}} = 1.4\)